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Book stack image, copyright ABfaR and ibooknet limitedThe ibooknet glossary


A glossary of the terms and abbreviations that might be found in book descriptions:

Symbol or Numeric

The symbols and numeric terms that are found included in book descriptions

Alphabetic

An A-Z of most of the expressions and abbreviations used in book descriptions

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Book and Paper Sizes

The most commonly used terms already listed in the A-Z but for ease of access, repeated here in a small group

Condition

The shorthand that is used to describe the condition of a book - but it is wise to use these as a general guide only and to take note of the faults mentioned.

Symbol or Numeric

©
copyright (date)
( )
curved brackets surround information provided by the cataloguer which is out of sequence to or additional to the normal book description, eg the date, where it is not shown on the title but appears elsewhere in the book; where the book first appeared under a different title, the original title may be in curved brackets; or the name of an illustrator who is not the author but where it appears in the 'author' field, etc.
(c19??)
circa (in the region of) the date shown
[ ]
square brackets surround information which is known but which is not necessarily stated in the book (eg. anonymous author, publication date, number of unpaginated pages, etc.)
4to (quarto)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and comprises four leaves or eight pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
8vo (octavo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half three times and comprises eight leaves or sixteen pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
12mo (duodecimo or twelvemo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and then in thirds, and comprises twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
16mo (sextodecimo or sixteenmo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half four times and comprises sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages, see book sizes and paper sizes

Alphabetic

A

A format
a size of paperback generally referred to as 'mass market', 110mm x 178mm (4.33" x 7.01")
ads., advts.,
advertisements, usually at the end of a book and sometimes separately paginated
advance copy
precedes the issue of the first trade edition, although can be part of that edition or similar to a proof copy - usually for review rather than proofing (see proof copy)
aeg
all edges gilt, gold leaf applied to all edges of a book
AL
Autograph Letter, in the handwriting of the author but not signed (see ALS)
ALS
Autograph Letter Signed, in the handwriting of the author and signed (see also TLS)
as called for
a reference to the contents of a book when compared with a known bibliographical record (named) or to other listing within the book (eg. list of illustrations)
as issued
confirmation that the elements of the book are in their original state
assoc., association
an association copy means that there is something special with regard to the previous ownership of that copy, eg it was the author's own copy, the copy owned by the person to whom the author dedicated the book, etc.
B

B format
a size of paperback generally referred to as 'trade market', the smaller of two trade paperback sizes at: 130mm x 198mm (5.12" x 7.8")
backstrip
the spine or back of the book
bds., boards
the outer protection of the pages of a 'hardback' book, usually covered in leather or cloth on older books but more recent books in paper with a grain like cloth or in USA often cloth backed with paper covered bds.
bevelled
usually with thick boards to describe where they have been shaped to a narrower thickness at the edges
binding copy
a copy with the binding in poor condition but with clean contents worthy of being rebound
black letter
a general description of the gothic type faces used in early printing
blanks
blank pages forming part of the gathering or signature
blind
impressed mark, lettering or decoration without any ink or other colouring. Blind stamped cloth usually means some sort of decoration stamped into the boards, blind stamped owner's mark is usually on ffep, half title or title, etc.
blurb
the promotional description used on a dustwrapper or wrappers
book formats
the construction of the printed pages comprising the book, ie number of times each original printed sheet has been folded to produce each gathering or signature, see folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sextimodecimo
book sizes
this subject needs a glossary all of its own as it is dependent on so many different criteria: general terms in use tend to refer to an abbreviation for the format rather than the size, ie the number of times each original printed sheet has been folded to produce each gathering or signature, (see folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sextimodecimo) but the size of the book using this method depends on the size of the original sheet of paper (foolscap, crown, demy, royal, etc). The more technical booksellers will describe both but many will use physical size in inches or centimetres,
bookplate
used, most often on the pastedown, to identify the ownership of a book and especially useful in establishing earlier ownership. Finely produced bookplates collectable in their own right.
buckram
a hard wearing cloth of linen or cotton
bump
usually at spine ends and/or corners where there are signs that the book had been knocked
bw, b/w
black and white
C

C format
a size of paperback generally referred to as 'trade market', the larger of two trade paperback sizes at: 135mm x 216mm (5.32" x 8.51")
c
circa or copyright. It is found used to mean either and which in any particular case can probably decided from the context. Copyright is alo abbreviated by the symbol ©.
calf
the tanned skin of a calf used for binding, a smooth grainless leather usually mid brown in colour but may be decorated in a number of styles
cancels
part of a book replaced from what was originally printed (eg the title page of Dornford Yates' 'Wife Apparent', 1956 - during printing it was discovered that the intended title was already in use and so the whole run had a new title tipped to the stub of the original)
case, cased
an expression almost out of use as it refers to the machine binding of a book as opposed to hand binding. With nearly all binding now by machine the expression bound or binding are now accepted for machine binding
cat.
catalogue
chip, chipping, chipped
usually of a dustwrapper but occasionally of the edges of leaves where pieces along the edge are missing
clam shell case/box
a box especially made to protect the book or other ephemera, then covered in some form of leather, see also solander
cloth
the fabric used to cover the boards and spine of a book
cloth grain paper
in more recent years a paper with the impressed grain of cloth is used as a cheaper alternative to cloth
cocked
through repeated opening of a book the upper board no longer lies in line wih the lower board with the result that in section, the spine is angled.
col'd, cold
coloured
colophon
in early books a note at the end of a book (usually last leaf) giving details of the publication that the printer thought to be important. The same information in more modern books is found on the title page.
cont., contemp., contemporary
at the same time, ie. not contemporary 'now' but contemporary with whatever else is being described
covers
the material covering the boards of a hardbound book or sometimes the whole outer covering of a book including the boards
crown, cr.
a paper size of twenty inches by fifteen inches before being folded
D

demy
a paper size of twenty-two and a half inches by seventeen and a half inches before being folded
device
usually the mark or other symbol of the publisher but sometimes of the author or printer
dichromatic
used to describe cloth which is one colour on the weft and another contrasting colour on the weave
disbound
commonly used for an item removed from a composite or complete work, eg. a single pamplet removed from a bound collection of pamplets
dj, dustjacket
the loose paper jacket on the outside of a hardback book, also occasionally found on mainly pre-WW2 paperbacks, synonymous with dustwrapper
duodecimo (twelvemo or 12mo)
a book format, gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and then in thirds, and comprises twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
dusty
describes the edges of leaves that have accumulated dust, grime, dirt etc. in the passage of time
dw, dustwrapper
the loose paper jacket on the outside of a hardback book, also occasionally found on mainly pre-WW2 paperbacks, synonymous with dustjacket
E

edges
unless otherwise qualified the three outer edges of the leaves of a book, the head - the top or upper edge, the fore-edge, and the tail - the lower or bottom edge
edition, edn.
the books printed from one set of plates. Any material alteration to the text or wear to the original plates requiring new plates to be made will result in a new edition (see also impression and issue)
endpapers
endpaper, endpapers, the leaf of paper at the end of a book, half of which is pasted to the inside of the boards (the paste down or pd) and half of which is a blank page (the free endpaper, or fep)
ep, eps
see endpapers
errata
usually a slip or extra leaf tipped in containing corrections to the text discovered after the printing of the main body of the book
ex lib, ex library
a book discarded by, usually, a public library in which case the book will probably be well worn and contain many marks
ex libris
latin, 'from the library of', often found printed on bookplates (see bookplate)
extra illustrated
additional illustrations over and above the illustrations, if any, of the original issue
extrems
extremities, the furthest edges, usually spine ends, edges and corners
F

facs, facsimile
a reproduction of an earlier issue
feps
front endpapers (see endpapers)
ff
leaves, where the pages are unnumbered or numbered as leaves (a leaf has two sides, a page has one side)
ffep
front free endpaper (see endpapers)
first edition
first edition, unless qualified in some way, means the first impression or printing of the first edition. With nearly all modern books the only collectable printing is the first and to prefix the second and/or subsequent printings with 'first edition' is, at best, misleading.
first ***
many valid suffixes exist to the description 'first', for example the first illustrated edition, the first by a particular illustrator, the first in a particular format, etc. These should never be described as simply 'first edition' but 'first thus' is acceptable and best practice is for a more detailed explanation in the text.
fldg
folding, usually of maps and/or tables, etc, which are too large, when unfolded, for the book
Fo. (folio)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half once and comprises two leaves or four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
foolscap, fcp
a paper size of seventeen inches by thirteen and a half inches before being folded
fore
front
fore-edge painting
the fore-edge of the book, very slightly fanned out and then clamped, is decorated with painted views or conversation pieces. Occasionally this process was repeated on the other side, thus double fore-edge painting. The edge is then gilt in the normal way.
formats
the construction of the printed pages comprising the book, ie number of times each original printed sheet has been folded to produce each signature, see folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sextimodecimo
fox marks, foxed, foxing
ranging from light brown or yellow to very dark brown spots, patches and larger areas, usually caused by a combination of the acidity and/or imperfections in the paper and the atmospheric conditions in which the book has been kept, occasionally found in cloth
fpd
front paste down (see eps)
frontis, frontispiece
an illustration opposite the title page of a book, may be part of the gathering but more usually tipped in, sometimes with a tissue guard
full bound, full binding
the same material covering the whole of the boards and spine
G

gathering
a group of leaves formed from one folded sheet of paper, the number of leaves depending on the size of the original sheet and the way in which folded, multiple gatherings being sewn together to form the unbound book
gilt
applied gold leaf, usually the lettering and/or decoration to the covers but sometimes to top and other edges (see teg, aeg)
guard
a tipped in protection to a plate, usually tissue
H

half bound, half binding
two different board covering materials applied one to the spine and corners of the boards, the other to the boards, (eg. half calf) see also quarter bound
half title
usually preceding the title page with just the book title displayed
half tone
a monotone illustration with a number of shades of grey between black and white
head
the upper part or top
headband
a decorative band, usually coloured cotton or silk, at the head of the spine beteen the leaves and the backstrip (see also tailband)
head-piece
an ornament or vignette at the start of a chapter
hinges
the internal junctions bewteen the bulk of the pages and the boards (see also joints)
I

ill., ills.
illustrated, illustrations
imp., impression
an impression, or printing, from a set of plates, the first impression being the first edition. Where an extra print run is made from the same plates then it is known as a further impression - the impression number is often indicated on the verso of the title. If the text is re-set then a new set of plates is needed and a printing from these would be a new edition. Modern printing methods often involve the use of a number or text string to indicate the impression number, the lowest being the number of that impression (a more detailed reference such as that by Zempel and Verker gives much fuller detail of how each publisher identifies first editions).
india paper
a very thin, tough and opaque paper first made for the Oxford University Press and properly called Oxford India Paper
inscr., inscription
inscription by a former owner or by a person presenting the book to the former owner - could be anyone and is a fault rather than the attraction of being 'inscribed' which is an enhancement
inscribed
only used where the writing in the book is by the author, illustrator or some other person with a significant association with the book but not necessarily with a signature - the relevance of the inscriber will be stated
issue
points of difference of an impression, eg. where the printer has spotted a broken character and replaces it or otherwise makes some material change or correction during a print run then a different issue is created; it would also be a different issue when the same impression of an edition is released in a different binding
J

japon
a heavy vellum-like paper used for some de luxe and limited editions
joints
the external junctions between the boards and the spine covering (see also hinges)
K

L

laid down
a method of repair to paper where it is laid down onto or backed by a further layer of paper
laid in
additional material included but not bound into the book, synonymous with loosely inserted
laminated, lamination
a glazed plastic surface applied to the outside of a dustwrapper, the paper wrappers of a softback or the paper covering of many children's books - and sometimes with ex-library books the lamination is over the dustwrapper and book welding the two together
large paper copy
a small number of copies of an edition printed on larger size paper, often of a better quality than the main edition, for presentation, subscribers or for sale at a higher price
leaf, leaves
a page of a book comprising both sides, the verso and the recto
leather
a generic term for animal skin, more usually identified by the type of leather such as calf, morocco, etc.
library binding
bound for a library, NOT the publisher's binding but usually in a plain and unattractive but hardwearing material - favoured by circulating libraries (did not refer to public library binding but this usage is becoming more common)
limited edition
an edition limited to a stated number of copies, usually numbered by hand, and sometimes also signed
line
an illustration in black or other single colour, perceptions of grey (or lighter colour) being achieved by smaller thinner lines
loosely inserted
additional material included but not bound into the book, synonymous with laid in
M

marbled
sometimes of edges but more usually of endpapers or the paper covering of bds. and occasionally of calf, a decoration to resemble the veined effect of marble
margins
the unprinted parts of the page around the text
marker
often described as silk though these days likely to be a more robust material, a coloured tape bound into the top of the book to be used as a page marker
mass market
a paperback edition, usually after any trade paperback edition and in a smaller format known as 'A': 110mm x 178mm (4.33" x 7.01")
morocco
the tanned skin of a goat used in binding, a hard wearing fine grained leather which readily takes a variety of colours
mount
the leaf on which an illustration has been mounted, often a heavier art paper than the remainder of the book
mounted
usually of an illustration of a smaller size than the full page which has been pasted or tipped-in onto a blank leaf (the mount)
N

nd, ND
no date
O

oblong
a book that is wider than it is tall
octavo (8vo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half three times and comprises eight leaves or sixteen pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
offsetting
the transfer of printed ink from the printed page to the opposite page
onlay
a pasted panel of paper, often an illustration on the covers of a book, usually coloured and pictorial
opened
books are printed on very large sheets of paper which are then folded several times, gathered and trimmed to produce the pages. The trimming sometimes misses the folded edge leaving pages 'unopened'. Careless opening of these can lead to rough edges, even sharksfins
out of series
the number of copies of a limited edition that are printed will exceed the specified limitation to cover errors, etc, and these unnumbered copies are called out of series
P

paginated, pagination
the page numbering
paper sizes
the most common names for the original size of paper on which the multiple pages comprising a gathering or signature (when folded) are: foolscap, crown, demy and royal - see individual explanations. There are a number of others names and sizes which are beyond the scope of this glossary.
paper wrappers
another name for the covering of a paperback, sometimes the only indication that the book is a paperback
paperback
the book issue where heavy paper or thin card is used in place of boards, in many formats and unless otherwise described to be assumed to be in mass market format, UK size (about 7 x 4ΒΌ inches - see also trade paperback and A, B and C format)
parchment
the inner skin of sheep, not tanned but degreased and used as a high quality paper or for binding, (see also vellum)
pc
price clipped
pds
paste downs (see endpapers)
plate(s), plt(s)
an illustration on a separate leaf usually printed on one side only
plt
see plate
port
portrait
pp
the numbered pages, see also ff, pagination and prelims
prelims
the pages up to where the main text of the book starts, sometimes unnumbered, when numbered often in Roman numerals
printing
see impression
proof
printed for the publisher's in-house use only in numbers ranging from about 50-300 copies depending on requirements - early proofs vary in format but later or final proofs are usually in plain or printed thin card wrappers or with a printed label, used for author's corrections, to check text, layout, typesetting, etc., and rarely with a proof dustwrapper
pseud
pseudonym or pen-name
publishers cloth
plain cloth binding issued by the publisher from about 1820's onwards. Prior to this books were issued in plain boards as a temporary measure before the customer had them leather bound. Became the norm by the 1830's when binding became more decorative
Q

quarter bound
two different board covering materials applied one to the spine, the other to the boards, see also half bound
quarto (4to)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and comprises four leaves or eight pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
R

raised band
ridges found at the spine, usually four or five in number, where the spine covering material is raised over the cords to which the gatherings are sewn
reading copy
a copy not in collectable condition but with the complete text
rebacked
re-using the original spine
rebound
binding other than the original
recto
the opposite of the verso, the page to the right of the book when opened
respined
a new spine to match the binding
rexine
a plastic coated cloth usually imitating leather, in various colours and embossed patterns, used to cover the boards of a book
rfep
rear free endpaper (see endpapers)
roan
a thin and cheap type of sheepskin used for binding
roll, rolled
in relation to paperback books where the spine has taken on a curved section
royal
a paper size of twenty-five inches by twenty inches before being folded
rpd
rear paste down (see endpapers)
rubbing, rubbed
abrasion to the surface area
S

sextodecimo (sixteenmo or 16mo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half four times and comprises sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
shaken
the book is no longer firm in its covers
sharksfin
when the edges of a book are cut (see uncut) an error sometimes occurs when a misfold allows extra paper to be left, when unfolded, protruding beyond the edges. Also sometimes occurs when opening unopened pages
sheep
the tanned skin of a sheep used for binding, a soft almost grainless leather which can be coloured but which is not a hard wearing material
signature
the letters or numerals found in the lower margin of the first and sometimes some subsequent leaves of a gathering to assist the binder in ordering the gatherings (A-Z then AA-ZZ, etc). These days sometimes used as a synonym for gathering
signed
only used where the signature is by the author, illustrator or some other person with a direct association with the book
sixteenmo (sextodecimo or 16mo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half four times and comprises sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
sizes
see book sizes or paper sizes (and also formats)
skewed
the upper board is no longer directly over and parallel to the lower board.
sl.
slight, slightly
slant, slanted
similar to cocked but applied more usually to paperbacks
slipcase
a card box the same size and shape as the book and usually covered in the same material as the book, into which the book fits leaving one side open - usually only used for limited editions, de luxe editions, etc.
solander case/box
a box especially made to protect the book or other ephemera, then covered in some form of leather, see also clam shell
sprinkled
the application of small dots of colour as decoration to the edges of leaves
sunning, sunned
damage caused by exposure to sunlight which can darken and/or bleach depending on the material and/or the colours involved
T

tail
the lower part or bottom
tailband
a decorative band, usually coloured cotton or silk, at the tail of the spine beteen the pages and the backstrip (see also headband)
tail-piece
an ornament or vignette at the end of a chapter
tanned, tanning
the uniform yellowing or browning of paper with age or atmospheric conditons
teg
top edge gilt, gold leaf applied to the top edge of a book, see gilt and aeg
text block
the book without the boards and endpapers
tipped
lightly glued to affix along one edge
tips
the spine ends and corners of a book
TLS
Typed Letter, Signed by hand
trade edition
an edition on general sale as opposed to proof copies, advance copies, limited editions, etc.,
trade paperback
usually the first paperback edition, in larger format then the mass market 'A' edition and in the UK it appears in two sizes: 'B' format is 130mm x 198mm (5.12" x 7.8")  and 'C' format is 135mm x 216mm (5.32" x 8.51").
twelvemo (duodecimo or 12mo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and then in thirds, and comprises twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
U

uncut
the edges of the pages are left rough and have not been trimmed to a smooth finish
unopened
the leaves of a book comprise sheets of paper which have been printed and then folded several times before being sewn. When sewing is complete the edges of the folds are trimmed. Pages are described as 'unopened' in the case of any trimming which has failed to reach the folds
V

v.
very
vellum
the inner skin of calf, not tanned but degreased and used as a high quality paper and also for binding (see also parchment)
verso
the opposite of recto, the page on the left of the book when open
vignette
a small decorative or ornamental design
vol
volume
W

waf
with all faults
wraps., wrappers
another name for the covering of a paperback, sometimes the only indication that the book is a paperback
X

Y

yapp edges
originally used to describe often devotional books bound in limp leather where the covers extend beyond the text block on all three sides. They may fold acros the edges of the text block. Now more often used to describe slim books and pamphlets with paper wrappers that extend beyond the text block and so are very prone to damage,
Z

Book and Paper Sizes

4to (quarto)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and comprises four leaves or eight pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
8vo (octavo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half three times and comprises eight leaves or sixteen pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
12mo (duodecimo or twelvemo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and then in thirds, and comprises twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
16mo (sextodecimo or sixteenmo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half four times and comprises sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
book sizes
this subject needs a glossary all of its own as it is dependent on so many different criteria: general terms in use tend to refer to an abbreviation for the format rather than the size, ie the number of times each original printed sheet has been folded to produce each signature, (see folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sextimodecimo) but the size of the book using this method depends on the size of the original sheet of paper (foolscap, crown, demy, royal, etc). The more technical booksellers will describe both but many will use physical size in inches or centimetres,
crown, cr.
a paper size of twenty inches by fifteen inches before being folded
demy
a paper size of twenty-two and a half inches by seventeen and a half inches before being folded
duodecimo (twelvemo or 12mo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and then in thirds, and comprises twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
Fo. (folio)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half once and comprises two leaves or four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
foolscap, fcp
a paper size of seventeen inches by thirteen and a half inches before being folded
octavo (8vo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half three times and comprises eight leaves or sixteen pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
paper sizes
the most common names for the original size of paper on which the multiple pages comprising a gathering signature (when folded) are: foolscap, crown, demy and royal - see individual explanations. There are a number of others names and sizes which are beyond the scope of this glossary.
quarto (4to)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and comprises four leaves or eight pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
royal
a paper size of twenty-five inches by twenty inches before being folded
sextodecimo (sixteenmo or 16mo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet are folded in half four times and comprises sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
sixteenmo (sextodecimo or 16mo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half four times and comprises sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages, see book sizes and paper sizes
twelvemo (duodecimo or 12mo)
a book format, each gathering formed from paper sheet folded in half twice and then in thirds, and comprises twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, see book sizes and paper sizes

Condition

M - mint
As new. The book will be in the state one would expect to find on the shelf of a bookshop selling new books, behind the books already fingered by browsers.
F - fine
Almost as new. No major blemishes but the book has signs of being previously owned. The page edges will be clean, the contents sound, no major faults and any minor faults will be specified.
VG - very good
Showing signs of previous ownership. Corners may be a little bumped and/or the cloth rubbed, page edges may be dusty or browned, there may some writing on the flyleaf (ffep) and in the case of the dustwrapper, rubbing, clipping of price from the flap, short edge tears and/or minor chipping. Too many of these faults will take the book into the next category. 
G - good
Showing major signs of previous ownership. Likely to have bumped corners and/or spine ends, marked page edges and bear signs of reading on a number of previous occasions with ownership label/inscription etc. Dustwrapper probably well rubbed, some tears and/or chipping, overall soiling, etc. Again, too many of these faults will take the book into the next category. 
P - poor, or reading copy only
This is a reading or reference copy only. The text will be complete but illustrations may be missing and the cloth may be very worn marked and/or torn. It is probable that only the major faults will be mentioned as the minor ones will be too numerous. The book may even be disbound but if so this will be specifically mentioned. Any dustwrapper, if present, is likely to be in pieces or with major portions missing.
Plus +
Indicates better than the major category specified without reaching the next category.
Minus -
Indicates worse than the major category specified. Usually only used with G so that G- means that it is not of the expected standard for that category but that it is better than a 'reading copy'. If of a dustwrapper then it is better than in pieces but not really of a standard that could be called 'Good'.

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